acting schools were also created. 18 19 In Łódź, the Germans forced Jews to help destroy a monument to a Polish hero, Tadeusz Kościuszko, and filmed them committing the act. (1996 Historical Dictionary of Poland, 9661945, Greenwood Publishing Group, isbn Lukowski, Jerzy ; Zawadzki, Hubert (2006 A Concise History of Poland (2nd. 115 Since the Germans also banned Polish sport activities, underground sport clubs were created; underground football matches and even tournaments were organized in Warsaw, Kraków and Poznań, although these were usually dispersed by the Germans. 215, 221 Salmonowicz 1994,. . Polish-language books were burned even in the primary schools. Under such circumstances, the school day, which normally lasts five hours, is reduced to one hour.
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80 81 Other organizations were created locally; after 1940 they were increasingly subordinated and coordinated by the TON, working closely with the Underground's State Department of Culture and Education, which was created in autumn 1941 and headed by Czesław Wycech, creator of the TON. 49 Also occasionally sponsored were secret art exhibitions, theater performances and concerts. 10 Shuttered museums were replaced by occasional art exhibitions that frequently conveyed propagandist themes. Not until the end of World War I was independence restored and the nation reunited, although the drawing of boundary lines was, of necessity, a contentious issue. 11 The war on the Polish language included the tearing down of signs in Polish and the banning of Polish speech in public places. Dear, majority of scholars believe that "In the Soviet occupation zone, conditions were only marginally less harsh than under the Germans." 2 In September 1939, many Polish Jews had fled east; after some months of living under. 34 To forestall the rise of a new generation of educated Poles, German officials decreed that the schooling of Polish children would be limited to a few years of elementary education.
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22 32 During World War II Poland lost 39 to 45 of its physicians and dentists, 26 to 57 of its lawyers, 15 to 30 of its teachers, 30 to 40 of its scientists and university professors, and 18 to 28 of its clergy. 2 37 48 Censorship and propaganda edit Kraków, 1941. An Introductory Report on the State of Knowledge) (in Polish Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Reklama, isbn Ordęga, forste one night stand expnce korsholm
Adam; Terlecki, Tymon (1945 Straty kultury polskiej, (Losses of Polish Culture, 19391944) (in Polish Glasgow: Książnica Polska Pruszynski, Jan.h (1997 "Poland: The War Losses. 236237 a b Salmonowicz 1994,. . 86 Compared to pre-war classes, the absence of Polish Jewish students was notable, as they were confined by the Nazi Germans to ghettos ; there was, however, underground Jewish education in the ghettos, often organized with support from Polish organizations like TON. 65 Polish teachers were not allowed in the schools, and many were arrested. 419 Ferguson 2006,. . Within ten to twenty years, the Polish territories under German occupation were to be entirely cleared of ethnic Poles and settled by German colonists. 155156 Salmonowicz 1994,. . 113 Patriotic songs were written, 16 such as Siekiera, motyka, the most popular song of occupied Warsaw. 5 By 1 October, Germany and the Soviet Union had completely overrun Poland, although the Polish government never formally surrendered, and the Polish Underground State, subordinate to the Polish government-in-exile, was soon formed. 10 Further directives issued in the spring and early summer reflected policies that had been outlined by Frank and Goebbels during the previous autumn. 46 Polish literature faced a similar fate in territories annexed by Germany, where the sale of Polish books was forbidden. 10 Banned literature included maps, atlases and English - and French-language publications, including dictionaries. 134 Many Polish works of art created since the war have centered on events of the war.